Boris Villazon-Terrazas

Non-Ontological Resources (NORs) are knowledge resources whose semantics have not yet been formalized by an ontology.

Download NOR2O

v0.2.4 (alpha), released 2010-11-25


About NOR2O

NOR2O is a library for transforming non-ontological resources to ontologies. The library performs an ETL process. The Figure depicts the modules of the library.

The NOR Connector loads classification schemes, thesauri, and lexicons modelled with their corresponding data models, and implementations.

The Transformer performs the transformations by implementing the sequence of activities included in the patterns. This module interacts with the Semantic Relation Disambiguator module for obtaining the suggested semantic relations of the NOR elements.

The Semantic Relation Disambiguator is in charge of obtaining the semantic relation between two NOR elements. Basically, the module receives two NOR elements from the Transformer module and returns the semantic relation between them. The module connects the external resource through the External Resource Service module to get the relation.

The External Resource Service is in charge of interacting with external resources for obtaining the semantic relations between two NOR elements. At this moment the module interacts with WordNet. We are implementing the access to DBpedia.

The OR Connector generates the ontology in OWL. To this end, this module relies on the OWL API.

Quick start

You need:

What to do:

  1. Download and extract the archive to a suitable location.

  2. The current distribution comes with three examples. The examples are included in the example1, example2 and example3 folders.

  3. Copy the files included in the example1 folder into the parent folder.

  4. Run nor2o from the command line.

  5. Wait till it finishes, and check the ontology.

Working with the configuration files

The library needs three configuration files:

  1. nor.xml for describing the non-ontological resource.
  2. prnor.xml for describing the transformations.
  3. or.xml for describing the ontology to be generated.


Here is an example configuration file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<Nor type="Thesaurus" name="ETT">
	<Schema> <!-- NOR Schema entities -->
			<SchemaEntity name="Term">
				<Attribute name="Identifier" valueFrom="DESCRIPTOR" type="string"/>
				<Relation name="NT" using="RecordBased" valueId="NT" destination="Term"/> 
				<Relation name="BT" using="RecordBased" valueId="BT" destination="Term"/> 	
				<Relation name="RT" using="RecordBased" valueId="RT" destination="Term"/>				
				<Relation name="UF" using="RecordBased" valueId="UF" destination="NonPreferredTerm"/>			
			<SchemaEntity name="NonPreferredTerm">
				<Attribute name="Identifier" valueFrom="NON-DESCRIPTOR" type="string"/> 
	<DataModel> <!-- NOR DataModel -->
	<Implementation> <!-- NOR Implementation -->
		<Xml xmlFile="ett.xml"/>


Here is an example configuration file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<Prnor identifier="PR-NOR-TS-LO-10" transformationApproach="TBox">  <!-- Transformation Approach and name of the Pattern -->
	<Class from="Term" identifier="[Identifier]">
		<ObjectProperty from="NT" to="superClassOf"/> 
		<ObjectProperty from="RT" to="relatedTerm"/> 
		<ObjectProperty from="BT" to="subClassOf"/> 		
		<ObjectProperty from="UF" to="rdfs:label"/> 				


Here is an example configuration file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<Or name="ett ontology" ontologyURI="" 
	ontologyFile="ett.owl" implementation="OWL" alreadyExist="no" separator="#">

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Boris Villazon-Terrazas

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